Oupipo (Ouvroir de littérature potentielle : workshop of potential literature ) was a French writers workshop which sought to possibility of literature under technical restriction.  The founders were Noël Arnaud,  Jacques Bens , Claude Berge, Jacques Duchateau, Latis (Emmanuel Peillet) ,François Le Lionnais, Jean Lescure, Raymond Queneau and Jean Queval Albert-Marie Schmidt.

The literal bondage was as below:  palindromes, univocalism, S+7, Prisoner’s constraint, snowball, lipograms (a composition from which the writer systematically omits a certain letter or certain letters of the alphabet)  and palindrome (a word, phrase, or sequence that reads the same backwards as ).

One of the most famous Oulipian’s works is “A Void” (“La Disparition”) by  Georges Perec in 1969.  The remarkable novel never uses the alphabet “e”, which is most often used alphabet in French.  “Exercices de Style” written by Raymond Queneau in 1947 showed ninety-nine types of writing styles by rewriting a very simple and boring short scene.



Oulipo: freeing literature by tightening its rules

Raymond Queneau “Hundred Thousand Billion Poems”


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  1. Pingback: Raymond Queneau “Hundred Thousand Billion Poems” | The Seacoast of Bohemia

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